<p type = "text" content = "A & nbsp;vast reform bill Democrats in the House say that this will be their first priority after the lifting of the partial closure of the government that is filled with policies that fundamentally change the vote and campaign financing systems. These policies do not come out of nowhere. Most of them have been implemented and tested in cities and states of the country. "Data-reactid =" 5 "> A radical reform bill that, according to House Democrats, will be their first priority after the end of the partial closure of the government is filled with policies that fundamentally alter voting systems and These policies do not come out of nowhere – most of them have been implemented and tested in cities and states across the country.

"In the last five or six years, more and more solutions have been proposed at the local and state levels," said John Sarbanes (D-Md.), The project's principal sponsor. "It's not a unicorn. It's not like we're talking about something that exists in Jupiter's atmosphere. It's happening in America. "

In a famous dissenting opinion of 1932, Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis asserted the freedom of a state or local government to "serve as a laboratory; and experiment new social and economic experiences without risk for the rest of the country. According to this concept of "democracy labs", state and local governments are the ideal place to test policies before moving to the national level.

This is exactly what happened with the radical policies of H.R. 1 of the Democrats, whom they call the law for the people. The provisions of the draft law relating to the financing of electoral campaigns concerning public election financing, the disclosure of black currencies and vouchers for democracy have all been tested in the field. The same is true for automatic voter registration, the re-franking of crimes and the use of independent and non-partisan redistricting commissions.

<p type = "text" content = "since 2015, 15 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the automatic registration of voters, a popular reform among lawyers who think that it can significantly increase the number of people registered on the US voter lists. Since 2015, 15 states and the District of Columbia have adopted automatic voter registration, a popular reform among lawyers who believe it can dramatically increase the number of people listed on the Internet. electoral lists in the United States.

<p type = "text" content = "The policy works slightly differently in each state, but the basic premise is the same: when a person interacts with a motor vehicle from the state or other agencies, she is automatically registered to vote, unless she waives it . If they are already registered, their information is updated if necessary. Federal law already requires state motor vehicles and some state agencies to offer citizens the opportunity to register to vote. The automatic voter registration basically changes the process of making the registration a withdrawal option rather than an opt-in. "Data-reactid =" 31 "> The policy works slightly differently in each state, but the basic principle is the same: when a person interacts with a state motor vehicle or other agencies, it is automatically registered for vote unless it withdraws Federal laws already require state motor vehicles and some state agencies to offer citizens the opportunity to register to vote , and automatic voter registration essentially alters the process of making the registration an optional choice rather than opt-in.

<p type = "text" content = "Oregon, considered the model of automatic voter registration, was the first state in the country to adopt it in 2015. Although it is still relatively early to assess the impact, the first evidence is encouraging.The policy came into effect in January 2016 and, in just over a year and a half, the policy added 375,000 voters to the lists. A 2017 analysis According to the left-wing US Center for Progress, more than 116,000 people have been added to the list without being registered. "data-reactid =" 32 "> Oregon, considered the model of automatic registration of voters, was the first state in the country to adopt it in 2015. Although it is still relatively early to assess the impact, the first evidence is encouraging: the policy came into effect in January 2016 and in just over a year and a half it has added 375,000 people to analysis conducted in 2017 by the Center for American Progress, left, revealed that more than 116,000 people had been added to the lists without being otherwise enrolled.

<p type = "text" content = "Automatic voter registration also came into effect in California last year, adding 727,924 new voters to the voters lists since it was launched in April, and updating the voters' addresses. 269,365 people. 5.5 million eligible but not registered voters in the state in October.) The program was also scrutinized when it became apparent that the DMV had mistakes on thousands of voter registrationsincluding the registration of people who were not eligible to vote. The head of the DMV resigned and the agency imposed an extra level of scrutiny on voter registrations received. "Data-reactid =" 33 "> The automatic registration of voters also came into effect in California last year, where 727,924 new voters were elected .The lists since its launch in April and the addresses of 269,365 people (about 5.5 million eligible voters but not registered in the state in October) .The program was also the subject of close scrutiny when it appeared that the DMV had made mistakes when registering thousands of voters.The chairman of the DMV resigned and the agency imposed an additional level of control over the registrations of electors he has received.

<h3 class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Automatic restoration of voting rights of sentenced persons"data-reactid =" 36 ">Automatic restoration of voting rights of sentenced persons

Desmond Meade, President of the Florida Rights Restoration Coalition, on the left, and David Ayala, husband of Attorney General Aramis Ayala, celebrate with copies of their registration forms after voters approved an initiative to restore the right to vote ex-criminals in November. (ASSOCIATED PRESS)

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<p class = "canvas-atom-text-canvas Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Forty-eight states do not allow people having convictions of felony voting while incarcerated, but states have very different policies regarding when ex-criminals can regain their right to vote Some states allow ex-criminals to vote after they are released from prison while others forbid them they are on probation or parole. can be extremely confusing& nbsp; and dissuade people from registering to vote, even if they are eligible. "Data-reactid =" 57 "> Forty-eight states do not allow people sentenced to felony to vote while incarcerated, but states are very different from policies on when and how ex-criminals can recover their rights Some states allow ex-criminals to vote once they are released from prison, while others allow them to be banned while on probation or on parole, confusing and dissuading people from registering. to vote, even if they are eligible.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The law For the People aims to solve this problem by restoring automatically the right to vote once someone is released from prison. Currently, 13 states the District of Columbia does, but a federal law would help facilitate the process for all concerned. "data-reactid =" 58 "> The For the People Act aims to solve this problem by automatically restoring the right to vote as soon as any one is presently, 13 states and the District of Columbia do so, but a law Federal government would facilitate the process for all concerned.

"I think having a uniform rule that applies to everyone, anywhere in the world, and making it heard, would be really helpful," said Sean Morales-Doyle, Brennan Center for Justice's lawyer. , a nonprofit advocacy organization based in New York. for the reform of campaign financing and voting rights. "A uniform policy would clear up the confusion among voters. It would also help dispel any confusion among election officials. This would make it much easier to follow the lists of electors. "

<h3 class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Disclosure of black money"data-reactid =" 60 ">Disclosure of black money

The 2010 Supreme Court decision, Citizens United, led to an explosion of undisclosed spending by non-profit organizations, trade associations and businesses during elections. Congress tried to repair the court's collateral damage to transparency with the Disclosure Act in 2010, but it was missing a voice before removing a Republican buccaneer from the Senate.

Since then, states have intervened to enact their own disclosure laws or to regulate the black money's shutdown during elections. Variable disclosure rules to close holes created by the Supreme Court have been adopted in California, Delaware, Montana, New York, Texas, Vermont and Washington. Some of these laws allow more disclosure than others, which can help Congress determine the best option for federal elections.

"California's disclosure law is excellent but limited," said Ann Ravel, former chair of the Federal Election Commission, now with MapLight, a non-profit organization promoting disclosure.

The California government has passed two disclosure laws since the Citizens United decision. The first was passed in 2014 to oblige any group spending more than $ 50,000 in elections to disclose its donors. The second, promulgated in 2017, is aimed primarily at forcing independent users to post disclaimers detailing their top three donors on their advertising and campaign media. Ravel thinks that the disclosure threshold of $ 50,000 could be lowered – which is what the House Democrats bill does.

<h3 class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Good Democracy"data-reactid =" 65 ">Good Democracy

Teresa Mosqueda, a Seattle City Council member, was the first person in the country to win an elected office by collecting "democracy vouchers" to fund her campaign. (ASSOCIATED PRESS)

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A noticeable provision in the major Democrats reform package would create a pilot program for "democracy bonds" – a proposal to provide each citizen with vouchers that can be used as modest political donations. These vouchers would come in increments of $ 25, but could be used to make donations in an amount as low as $ 1.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The idea of" good of democracy "has was proposed by Bruce Ackerman, professor of constitutional law, many decades ago, but it had never been adopted before Seattle voters support an initiative to implement this idea in 2015. The program has already allowed to a lot of would otherwise be unable to afford political donationsincluding the homeless, participate in the political process by contributing to the candidates. A study found that 84% of people who used their vouchers in the 2017 municipal elections had not made a political contribution to at least the previous two election cycles. "data-reactid =" 87 "> The idea of" good for democracy "was proposed by Bruce Ackerman, professor of constitutional law, several decades ago, but it had never been adopted before that Seattle voters support an initiative to make this happen in 2015. The program has already enabled a large number of people who would otherwise be unable to afford political donations, including homelessness, A study revealed that 84% of those who used their checks in the 2017 municipal elections had not made a political contribution at least during the previous two election cycles.

Checks are also an alternative fundraising system for candidates who do not have the kind of relationship with large donors, often considered necessary to run for office.

In 2017, Seattle city council candidate Teresa Mosqueda became the first person in the country to win an election with democracy vouchers. She had heard that she should be a city council candidate among the participants in a program she led for the AFL-CIO, which encouraged women, people of color and people of the working class to be candidates. She was the kind of person she was trying to lead: a Latina from the labor movement who did not come from money. But his career has also been an obstacle to funding a campaign – until the Seattle vouchers are available.

"The voucher program for democracy has really dispelled the strain of seeing you fund a campaign or having to deal with dollars for most of your time," Mosqueda said.

"I was able to spend more time talking to people about what they wanted to see in government," she added.

The pilot project of the Democrats Bill would be implemented in three randomly selected states to test its operation during congressional elections and determine whether it should be extended to the country as a whole.

<h3 class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Early voting and same-day registration"data-reactid =" 93 ">Early voting and same-day registration

The People's Act would require states to allow citizens to register the same day of their vote and voters to vote for at least 15 consecutive days before polling day. Polling stations should be open at least four hours each day and, wherever possible, close to public transport.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Twenty states and the District of Columbia approved a form of registration the same day. This is seen as a reform that is likely to significantly increase voter turnout, as people pay more and more attention to an election as it gets closer. Federal law currently allows states to prohibit voter registration 30 days before an election. Activists also accept early voting because it gives people more time to go to the polls at their convenience. "Data-reactid =" 95 "> Twenty states and the Federal District of Columbia have approved some form of registration the same day.Federal law currently allows states to ban registration Voters 30 days before an election Activists also accept early voting because it gives citizens more time to vote, go to the polls at their convenience.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The advance vote in particular took place at the center many recent fights between Republicans and Democrats on the voting laws. The conventional wisdom is that early voting is good for Democrats. Republicans in several states have therefore decided to limit their availability. But a 2017 An article published by four political scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison suggests that the reality could be more complicated. The authors analyzed advance voting in the 2004, 2008 and 2012 presidential elections and found that, even though voter registration tended to benefit the Democrats, early voting alone would benefit Republicans more. "Data-reactid =" 96 "> Particular has been at the center of many recent Republican-Democrat fights over voting laws.The classic idea is that early voting is advantageous for Democrats, so the Republicans of Several states have limited their availability, but a 2017 article by four political scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison suggests that the reality may be more complicated.The authors analyzed the anticipated vote in the 2004, 2008 and 2012 presidential elections. found that even though voting on polling day tended to benefit the Democrats, early voting itself would benefit more.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "" The type of voter who enjoys early the vote – older, whiter and richer – is already likely to vote, and more likely to vote Republican ", the authors wrote in a blog post last year. "Our findings confirm that early voting itself has a negative and statistically significant effect on the share of the Democrats' vote in the three presidential elections we have analyzed. The ability to vote ahead in isolation increases the Republican vote by about six percentage points. "" Data-reactid = "97"> "The type of voter who benefits from early voting – the oldest, the whitest and the richest – is already likely to vote, and more likely to vote Republican", our authors wrote in a blog post last year. "Our results confirm that the anticipated vote itself has a negative and statistically significant effect on the share of the Democratic vote in the three presidential elections we analyzed. possibility to vote in advance in an isolated way increases the Republicans' vote by about six percentage points ".

According to the newspaper, when same-day registration is combined with early voting, voter turnout aligns more with conventional wisdom.

<h3 class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Independent cutting commissions"data-reactid =" 99 ">Independent cutting commissions

<p class = "canvas-atom-text-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "HR 1 would require states to create independent commissions that State legislators currently have the power to draw districts once a decade, and both parties have manipulated this process to their advantage. Republicans saw an opportunity take control of the state legislatures, control the redistricting process and maintain an electoral advantage for the next decade. They executed this plan with extreme precision and precision. "Data-reactid =" 100 "> HR 1 would oblige states to create independent commissions to draw congressional districts, and state legislators currently have the power to draw districts once a decade, and Republicans have seen 2011 the opportunity to take control of state legislatures, to control the redistricting process and to maintain an electoral advantage for the next decade by executing this plan with extreme precision.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Six states – Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana and Washington – use independent redistricting commissions to draw lines for state or convention districts. (Voters from Michigan, Utah and Colorado voted to establish independent commissions in the November election.) Lawyers explain that lawmakers have strong incentives to designate districts that favor their parties. Independent commissions provide firm control to ensure that ridings are fair. & Nbsp; "data-reactid =" 101 "> Six states – Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana and Washington – use independent redistricting commissions to draw lines for state or convention districts. , Utah and Colorado passed voting measures establishing independent commissions in the November elections.) Lawyers say lawmakers have strong incentives to designate pro-party districts, and independent commissions offer firm control to make sure the districts are fair.

When legislators draw their own lines, they lose all their philosophical ideals and become ugly monsters. Kathay Feng, director of national redistribution at Common Cause

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "In 2011, Independent Redistricting Commission of California drew the boundaries of constituencies for the state for the first time. Anyone can apply to serve on the 14-member commission – made up of five Democrats, five Republicans and four non-party affiliates – but strict requirements apply as to who can serve. . Eligible candidates must be registered to vote in California and have voted in two of the last three elections. During the 10 years preceding the submission of their application, they can not either& nbsp; you are running for office, working for a legislator, political party or lobbyist, or donating $ 2,000 or more to a party or candidate. The votes of several Democrats, Republicans and independents are needed to approve a plan. H.R. 1 would impose similar guarantees on independent commissions that it creates to help ensure district equity. "data-reactid =" 104 "> In 2011, California's Independent Redistricting Commission for the first time drew the boundaries of the electoral districts, and anyone can apply to the 14-member commission – consisting of five Democrats , five Republicans and four unaffiliated to one or the other party – is subject to strict criteria.Eligible candidates must be able to serve.Reply eligible candidates must be registered to vote in California and have voted for two of the 10 years prior to the nomination, they can not stand for election, have worked for a legislator, political party or lobbyist, or donated $ 2,000. or more to a party or a candidate.Many democrats, republicans and independents are required to approve a plan.HR 1 would impose similar guarantees to independent commissions q it creates to ensure district equity.

"When legislators draw their own lines, they lose all their philosophical ideals and become ugly monsters who want to eliminate their competitors, punish people from the other party and try to build the most protective district to deal with. serious competition over the next 10 years, "said Kathay Feng, national director in charge of the division of the Common Cause government group, which defended the creation of the California commission.

<h3 class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Public funding of small donors"data-reactid =" 106 ">Public funding of small donors

The main reform of the financing of the People's Act election campaign is the creation of a small donor matching system to publicly fund congressional elections. It is based on the public funding program put in place for decades for the New York elections.

New York adopted a small donor matching system to publicly fund its elections in 1988, in response to a series of corruption scandals across the city government. At that time, the system provided a 1: 1 match for donations of $ 1,000 or less. A candidate has received a dollar of public funds for every dollar of contribution up to $ 1,000. But the system has changed to strengthen the power of small donors over the years.

Proponents of New York City's matching fund system report changes that significantly strengthen the role of small donors as the number of public funds allocated increases and the contribution ceiling for counterpart funds is lowered. Currently, the system offers 8: 1 matching for contributions up to $ 175. This means that a contribution of $ 175 is actually equivalent to a contribution of $ 1,575 after the addition of public funds. For the People's Act, the Democratic Party's law uses a 6-to-1 match, a rate used by the New York City system from 2009 to 2018. Up to $ 200.

"The fact that it has been around for 30 years and is still working is, in my opinion, remarkable," said Lawrence Norden, Brennan Center for Justice Lawyer.

Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm "type =" text "content =" The New York City system has allowed candidates especially those from poorer neighborhoods – rely more consistently on small donors in their districts. "The city's public funding system encourages applicants to make contact with a wider and more diverse range of people. voters to finance their campaigns ", 2012 study by the Brennan Center and the progressive think tank Demos found. "data-reactid =" 111 "> The New York City system has allowed applicants, particularly those from poorer neighborhoods, to rely more consistently on small donors in their neighborhoods. Public encourages candidates to contact a wider and more diverse range of voters to fund their campaigns, "revealed a 2012 study by the Brennan Center and the progressive think tank Demos.

This system of matching small donors has also spread to other states, cities and municipalities. Some matching funds programs have been around for years, but in the last five years, adoption has rapidly spread to Washington, DC; Montgomery and Howard Counties in Maryland; and Suffolk County, New York, among others. New York State lawmakers are currently debating the adoption of such a program by all states.

"If New York is a guide, it actually changes how candidates raise money," Norden said. "So, at the moment, many candidates have collected many more contributions than we have seen in the past with small donors. I think we would consider even more of favoring voters and smaller donors as a source of funding rather than the largest donors. "

  • This article originally appeared on HuffPost.